Biomarkers are measurable biological molecules that diagnose disease and function as indicators for specific disease states. The presence of these molecules in a patient gives indications and predictions of disease progression. Physicians use this information for diagnosis, prognosis, and selection of suitable therapies and treatments for their patients.
ADx NeuroSciences develops biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and traumatic brain injury. Biomarkers allow the detection of these diseases, even before symptoms become visible. The ADX repertoire includes both established and novel biomarkers.
Amyloid-β, total-tau and P-tau (phospho-tau 181 and 231) are useful biomarkers for the detection of the Alzheimer pathology, even in an early stage. Decreased amyloid-β 42/40 ratio in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) correlates highly with the presence of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer brains. Total-tau and P-tau are good indicators of neuronal damage. Total-tau is a general marker while P-tau is more specific for damage caused by Alzheimer’s disease.
Total-tau can be measured in blood but clinical relevance for detection of Alzheimer’s pathology in blood is poor. However, in the case of severe concussion, levels of total-tau are clearly increased in blood, even briefly after a brain trauma. Quanterix is developing a device to test blood immediately after a concussion. To achieve this goal, they are using ADx antibodies.
Neurons are interconnected by multiple synapses. In Alzheimer’s disease, synapses show gradual degeneration. Neurogranin, BACE1 and Neuronal Pentraxin2 (NPTX2) in CSF are good biomarkers for synapse integrity. They will help to predict the progression of the disease.
The concentration of α-synuclein in CSF is linked to the presence of Lewy bodies in the brain which are typically found in the brains of Parkinson’s disease patients. Other α-synuclein isoforms are in development at ADx.
Neurofilament Light is good marker for axonal damage and a promising blood biomarker for Multiple Sclerosis.
Together with the high sensitive platforms, the measurement of neuro biomarkers in blood becomes now available. Ultra sensitive measurement of Amyloid-β 42/40 in plasma seems to be a promising biomarker to screen for amyloidopathy in the brain.
Different isoforms of tau in CSF and blood will support the development of novel drugs targetting tau.
Other markers we are looking at are TDP-43, LRRK2.
For a full overview of our markers, head over to our pipeline.